Saturday, September 25, 2010

Dyslexia - Learning disabilities – conclusion.

This is the conclusion of the articles I wrote on learning disabilities. My previous post on Learning Disabilities can be found here:- 
As I mentioned in the above article I do not know much about learning disabilities other than dyslexia. I am writing on these other disabilities found in articles in the net so that you will be able to differentiate dyslexia from the other Learning Disabilities.

This is taken from Learning disabilities association of America. You can see it here:

Hope this will clarify some of the differences between Dyslexia and other learning disabilities.

All my articles are based on the definition given by this Association.

Auditory processing disorder
Signs and Symptoms
  • Has difficulty processing and remembering language-related tasks but may have no trouble interpreting or recalling non-verbal environmental sounds, music, etc.
  • May process thoughts and ideas slowly and have difficulty explaining them
  • Misspells and mispronounces similar-sounding words or omits syllables; confuses similar-sounding words (celery/salary; belt/built; three/free; jab/job; bash/batch)
  • May be confused by figurative language (metaphor, similes) or misunderstand puns and jokes; interprets words too literally
  • Often is distracted by background sounds/noises
  • Finds it difficult to stay focused on or remember a verbal presentation or lecture
  • May misinterpret or have difficulty remembering oral directions; difficulty following directions in a series
  • Has difficulty comprehending complex sentence structure or rapid speech
  • “Ignores” people, especially if engrossed
  • Says “What?” a lot, even when has heard much of what was said

Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit

Reverses letters; cannot copy accurately; eyes hurt and itch;
loses place; struggles with cutting
Signs and Symptoms
  • May have reversals: b for d, p for q or inversions: u for n, w for m
  • Has difficulty negotiating around campus
  • Complains eyes hurt and itch, rubs eyes, complains print blurs while reading
  • Turns head when reading across page or holds paper at odd angles
  • Closes one eye while working, may yawn while reading
  • Cannot copy accurately
  • Loses place frequently
  • Does not recognize an object/word if only part of it is shown
  • Holds pencil too tightly; often breaks pencil point/crayons
  • Struggles to cut or paste
  • Misaligns letters; may have messy papers, which can include letters colliding, irregular spacing, letters not on line

Language Disorders: Aphasia, Dysphasia or Global Aphasia

Trouble understanding spoken language; poor reading comprehension
Signs and Symptoms
  • Has difficulty gaining meaning from spoken language
  • Demonstrates poor written output
  • Exhibits poor reading comprehension
  • Shows difficulty expressing thoughts in verbal form
  • Has difficulty labelling objects or recognizing labels
  • Is often frustrated by having a lot to say and no way to say it
  • Feels that words are “right on the tip of my tongue”
  • Can describe an object and draw it, but can’t think of the word for it
  • May be depressed or having feelings of sadness
  • Has difficulty getting jokes

Reading and related language-based learning disabilities
Signs and Symptoms
  • Reads slowly and painfully
  • Experiences decoding errors, especially with the order of letters
  • Shows wide disparity between listening comprehension and reading comprehension of some text
  • Has trouble with spelling
  • May have difficulty with handwriting
  • Exhibits difficulty recalling known words
  • Has difficulty with written language
  • May experience difficulty with math computations
  • Decoding real words is better than nonsense words
  • Substitutes one small sight word for another: a, I, he, the, there, was
End of extract

The following signs and symptoms( as  mentioned above ) are non- existent in orthographically consistent languages:-

       1. Read slowly and painfully

       2. Experience decoding errors

       3.Shows wide disparity between listening and reading comprehension (

        4. Has trouble with spelling

Since there is no clear definition on dyslexia I hope that this and the previous articles have been able to clarify some of the issues.


Unknown said...

This was a great post! Dyslexics get diagnosed with all of these different disorders all the time!

Luqman Michel said...

Thank you once again Heidi.

Luqman Michel said...

Wish you all the best in your endeavours.

shekhar said...

It is very wonderfull center