Digraphs can include a combination of consonants or vowels.
The combination 'ay' is a digraph.
The following is from the conversation between Dr. Kathryn Garforth and Jennifer Buckingham.
Sight words or one that has been memorized based on its shape vs the word that has been orthographically mapped. Because I see in many classroom teachers sending home Dolch words and expect kids to memorise them. Let us talk about why that is not the best approach and how memorizing a word is different from mapping it orthographically in your brain (Kathryn Garforth).
Today, 29.12.2020, I listened to a YouTube video post by WalshUniversity Literacy Initiative on Dr.Kilpatrick’s talk re: "How We Remember Words, and Why Some Children Don't"
I decided to ask a question as follows and hope to receive a response.
Somehow NONSENSE makes a lot of sense to most of the people around the world.
Let us look at the absurdity of the following statements by the two ‘educators’.
‘A’ stands for apple but changes a little bit depending on the letters before it or after it. So, it doesn’t sound exactly the same. The idea of a phoneme is a construct that is not true. (Dr. Kathryn Garforth)
It’s a simplification to think about phonemes as having a single sound, however our brains are able to cope with that slight variability in that co-articulation that happens according to the consonant or vowel that’s on the other side. (Jennifer Buckingham)
The following are statements made by Jennifer Buckingham on the conversation between Kathryn Garforth and Jennifer Buckingham found here.
Blending the speech sounds is not easy for every child – to take those speech sounds and put them together so that they make a recognizable word.
GPC’s (Grapheme Phoneme correspondences) must be learned to a level of automaticity so that blending can happen.
On 22.12.2020 I listened to the live conversation between Kathryn Garforth and Jennifer Buckingham. I asked 3 questions of which 2 were answered. The third one was left out due to time constraint.
From the conversation it is obvious that both these ‘educators’ do not know much about Orthographic Mapping other than what they have memorized from some books.
Here is the continuation of my Twitter discussion / argument with Pat Stone.
I have maintained that many smart kids are able to read in Malay and those who go to Chinese schools are able to read in Han Yu Pin Yin (Mandarin written using Roman / Latin letters).
From the discussion I had with a number of teachers on Twitter it is obvious that both a majority of phonics as well as whole language proponents are not aware that we don’t store words visually.
Here are some tweets on visual memorisation between Erin Harrington and me.
My post yesterday and this post should confirm that most teachers are unaware of the different sounds represented by letters. I am not basing this only on the 4 teachers involved in the Twitter discussion but on many other teachers I had discussed this with over the last 10 years via emails, on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Face Book.
The reading wars have been going on for decades. The more I read tweets by teachers the more I understand why the wars have been going on for so long.
Many teachers are unwilling to discuss with an open mind. They are like the prince in an Indian fable who had caught a three legged rabbit and started proclaiming that all rabbits are three legged.
They are exactly what Charlie Munger had described about the human egg.
I believe most schools today teach phonics in one form or another. Unfortunately, many schools have these hard core three cueing system proponents, who have not mastered how to teach phonics correctly, who also teach kids how to guess.
Instead of sounding out words, the three cueing system proponents teach kids to rely on syntax, semantic, or grapho- phonemic cue by looking at the beginning letter of words.
I posed the following question on Twitter on 6.12.2020.
Luqman Michel @luqmanmichel Dec 6 @eeharrington4
I have one Q for you and your Phonics folks. Can one learn to read without knowing the letter-sound relationship?
Erin Harrington responded as follows:
Knowledge of sound-symbol associations is vital for success in first grade and beyond.
Good readers do not depend primarily on context to identify new words. When good readers encounter an unknown word, they decode the word, name it, and then attach meaning.
When a good reader encounters an unknown
word the first thing he will do is to decode the word.